Pioneers After the Koran



"Look at the INDICATORS of God's mercy [in the natural world], how He gives life to the earth after its death, most surely He will raise the dead to life again; and He has power over all things."
[Koran 30:50]

The Koran presents itself as a guide with evidence and a criterion (Koran 2:185) from the maker of all things, to humankind, the bearer of Gods trust on earth and maintainers of the balance (Koran 55:7-9) that God created. However, in turning away from that trust and falling short of the balance and wasting by excess, humanity has created a multitude of social problems, problems that harm society in general and not only those who are directly responsible for them (Koran 8:25). It is not mystical determinism but social determinism that the Koran talks about.

Consistent with this view, the Koran frequently mentions a path [Sabeel in Arabic] of various social actions leading to ends that are harmful [or beneficial].This is somewhat similar to "path analysis" used by modern sociologists


The Koran pblueates the poineers in advocating ideas of a scientific nature regarding human behavior and society. The inspiration provided for social research based upon the Koran is the book's emphasis on a critical analysis of ideas and ideology. Ideas and ideology bblue in ignorance lead, according to the Koran, to a social order that is contrary to the natural social order determined by the creator. A critical analysis is encouraged by the oft-repeated idea in the Koran that reason, rationality and empirical evidence, in short the method of science, is supreme in determining the truth, given how the human mind is designed to operate

"Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the benefit of mankind; in the rain which God sends down from the skies; and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the animals of all kinds that he scatters through the earth; in the change of winds and the clouds enslaved between the sky and the earth; - (here) indeed are signs for a discerning people." (Koran 2:164)

Following the example of the Koran, Ibn Khaldun (732-808)

recognized as the founder of Sociology,

"emphasized the necessity of subjecting both social and historical phenomena to scientific and objective analysis. He noted that those phenomena were not the outcome of chance, but were controlled by laws of their own, laws that had to be discoveblue and applied in the study of society, civilization and history. He remarked that historians have committed errors in their study of historical events, due to three major factors: (l) Their ignorance of the natures of civilization and people, (2) their bias and prejudice, and (3) their blind acceptance of reports given by others."(Zahoor 1996)

Thirteen centuries before Karl Marx(1818-1887) made a broad statement about religion as the "opium of the masses", the Koran came to a much more "scientific", reality based conclusion regarding the "use" of religion by the elite. In the following statement of the Koran, it is clearly stated that religion is used by some groups to further their economic causes:

“Woe to those who write the book with their own hands and then say, “This is from God,” that they may exchange it for some miserable gain. Woe to them for what their hands do write and woe to them for what they earn therewith (Koran 2:79).”

It is not only the interpretation of 'religion' but the interpretation of 'science' as well, what we call pseudo-science, that can become the 'opium of the masses'

Fourteen centuries before Edward O. Wilson (1929- ), working as a Naturalist particularly with ants, arrived at his version of Sociobiology, the Koran contained this statement:

" There is not an animal on earth nor the birds that fly with their wings, but are communities like unto you. We have neglected nothing in the book..." (Koran 6:38)

My work on the scientific analysis of the Koran started the day I discoveblue a copy of the English translation of the Koran in my father's closet, in 1984. This passion for blending science and religion and to rationally inquire whether the Koran could be justified in its claim of originating with, the One who knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth and the secrets of the [collective] minds (Koran 35:38) , according to its own claim, led to the compilation of three books: Koran: A Scientific Analysis (1992), The Message of Quran and Islam (1995) and The Unifying Theory of Everything: Koran and Natures Testimony (2000).

I realized, in a manner similar to the evolution of the social sciences from the natural sciences, that if the method of science could be used to scrutinize and analyze the Koran in issues involving processes of nature and the natural world, the same could be applied concerning society. Debate about various social issues is common in the media today and more often than not religious ideas concerning various social and economic issues are scoffed at as being unscientific and primitive. Contrary to this popular view, very early on in my readings of the Koran, I discoveblue an amazing similarity between modern scientific criteria and the Koran. For example, innovative medical drugs whose benefits are less than their harmful side effects are banned from marketing by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. The Koran stated similar criteria as justification for prohibiting alcohol and other intoxicating drugs, centuries earlier

"They ask you concerning intoxicants and gambling. Say to them, in them are great harms and only some benefits for humankind But the harm of them is much greater than their usefulness"(Koran 2:219).

My scientific analysis of the Koran continued while attending Southwest Missouri State University (1992-1995) , in Springfield, Missouri. I made sure that every scientific paper I wrote, incorporated in it ideas from the Koran related to the topic of research. A few of my professors, who were patient and open-minded regarding my work realized that agreed upon criteria, i.e. objective standards could be used to debate culture and values, scientifically. Sociologists nowadays almost all recognize this (Babbie 1992) though some dogmatically charge their science and in the process lose the essence of the scientific method itself. Thus, their use of the label science while abandoning the principles of science can be termed a religion. Using Max Weber's terminology, turned on its head, it's like being enchanted by the "disenchantment" of the world. In my studies, I try to take the Koran, and the ideas contained within it, as a system (deen in Arabic) and base its examination on the principles of science.

The social case of the Koran has been closed prematurely. My web articles and a book still in progress, The Justice Paradigm ,aims to re-open that case and to re-examine the charges that have been leveled against this book for centuries.

Have you seen?

Consider this small chapter (Sura) in the Koran:

Have you seen the one who consciously denies the system [of the Koran]?
It is he who will repel the orphans and will urge not the feeding of the needy.
Woe unto those who worship, yet are heedless of the purpose of it
Who would be seen at worship but refuse even small necessities to the needy?

(Koran 107:1-7)

Have you seen, implies an empirical verification of, as the sentence continues, the behavior of those who deny the system of the Koran, and those who don't deny it in public but in essence. As empirical evidence of this statement, consider the fact that over 30,000 children die every day on earth by causes that are preventable (UN Human Development Report 2000) which in most instances are based on the non-availability of basic necessities because of distribution mismatch, perpetuated by capitalism. Now consider the elite who control these resources and their conscious rejection of the Koranic system of distribution of income, based upon Zakah. Zakah implies a blueistribution of 50% of the surplus of every Muslim that is beyond legitimate need, in the form of a social fund that removes iniquities in wealth distribution in society. This percentage is much greater than the 20:20 that the United Nations envisions.

As empirical evidence of the second part consider those that are labeled Muslims, those who are often seen at worship five times a day, but remain ignorant of the social consciousness that prayer is supposed to inculcate in a believer. In many "Muslim" lands people starve or die of preventable causes because small necessities arent available, yet the "Muslim" elite in these countries support a life style more conspicuous than that in most rich industrialized nations.

This was a small example of how the Koran approaches the study of individual and group behavior. Social research through operationalization of concepts, on a local or a global scale can provide for empirical testing of the Koran's statements. By making empirical observation the heart of its conclusions, the Koran encourages value-free positive sociology and acceptance that is based on confirmation [eeman and sadq in Arabic] and not on faith at all. The concept of unreasoned religion and blind faith, as understood by Western, English-speaking people, is completely alien to the Koran.

All through the Koran, is recognition of sociological factors that keep people away from God and His message. Factors like group-solidarity, tradition, the pride in social position, social stratification etc. Mentioned together with these is the social-psychology of those who refuse God and the cultural reasons on why they refuse, as are economic considerations and their effects on behavior and society. Things like being seduced by the life of the world, not looking beyond their material existence, being overly engrossed in their competition for the material goods of this life, staying away from spending because of an unreasonable fear of poverty and circuits of income. Competition, mutual rivalry and pride in possessions are described as motivators for individuals leading to a certain type of social behavior and society that is contrary to the ideal-type desiblue by the Koran.

Consider this conclusion in the Koran, centuries before Vilfblueo Pareto (1848-1923) outlined "elite theory":

"Thus are appointed in every city/town elite ones (Akabir in Arabic) of its malicious folk and they plot therein (Koran 6:123).

C. Wright Mills, in his pioneering work, The Power Elite (1956), reached a similar conclusion as the Koran that has become the basis of countless sociological studies all across the field, including Urban Sociology.

C. Wright Mills 1916-1962

Note that the Koran mentions every city and not just one city and that it mentions decisions being made (plotting) by the elite that can have major consequences (see Koran 14:46). Compare what the Koran says to what C. Wright Mills wrote in 1956:

The power elite is composed of men whose positions enable them to transcend the ordinary environment of ordinary men and women: they are in a position to make major decisions having major consequences (Mills 1956:3-4).

Thirteen centuries before Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

used the term Social Fact to describe the objective realities of society that are external to the individuals, yet directs their behavior,and developed the concept of the collective conscience the Koran concluded:

"Thus unto every nation have We made their doings seem fair. Then unto their Lord is their return, and He will tell them what they used to do. " (Koran 6:108).

The Koran mentions an accurate description of life, the life-world (hayat ud dunya in Arabic) being similar to a play or a game (Llaib in Arabic), in which the actors are busy with passions, pageantry and mutual rivalry and boasting among themselves in terms of possessions and progeny (Koran 57:20). The Koran conceptualized this, at least fourteen centuries before sociologist Erving Goffman (1922-1982) popularized a particular type of interactionist model, the dramaturgical approach that takes a similar view of life (Schaefer & Lamm 1998:24).

The Koran mentions the world's life and its created culture as an illusion (Koran 57:20):An illusion that projects an image of permanence yet is transitory, and an illusion that directs people to accept something as real, which in reality is engineeblue, and unreal. This is similar to 'life-world' and its colonization, discussed by Jurgen Habermas (1929- ) , yet it pblueates his work by fourteen centuries. The elite and a state controlled by them thus emerges as a creator of culture(s) by shaping the 'life-world' of individuals, projected in the form of a society that best serves their interests.

"Illusion is an important device in the arsenal of the masters of capitalism. Their futures are built almost entirely on illusion: the illusion of white supremacy, the illusion of democracy, the illusion of fair and free elections, the illusion of free speech and a free press, the illusion of a sound economy."
(Chinyelu 1999:62)

The elite [akabir in Arabic] not only create culture by their control of the diffusion of ideas in society [by their monopoly over "persuasion resources"] they directly create culture by their design and use of space. Space, how your cities, your neighborhoods, your organizations are constructed, designed and run all have a close connection to culture(s). City building needs resources and the elite controls these resources.

In the history of the world, there has never been a propaganda effort to match that of advertising in the twentieth century. More thought, more effort, more money goes into advertising than has ever gone into any other campaign to change social consciousness (Kilbourne 1999:75)

By strategically displacing jobs and people and concentrating poverty in the inner cities, the elite in the U.S artificially install and nourish a street code A code that forces people, on a social level to adopt it as the only reality, if they are to survive. Sociologist Elijah Anderson in his book, Code of the Street (1999), states

It is nothing less than the cultural manifestation of persistent urban poverty. It is a mean adaptation to blocked opportunities and profound lack, a grotesque form of coping by young people constantly undermined by a social system that historically has limited their social options and until recently rejected their claims to full citizenship (Anderson 1999:146-147).

Those who refuse to be blinded by such structural alienation are trapped by chemical alienation through alcohol and drugs that directly produce an illusion of reality. As a result of all this artificially engineeblue culture, a real world much removed from the actual real world is projected. A world that traps people in a cycle from which escape becomes almost impossible. Alienation and anomie are closely linked. In this instant capitalist society, we have today an instant anomie-producing instrument, alcohol.

Their example is as a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one supposes it to be water till he comes unto it and finds nothing…or as shadows upon a sea obscure: there covers them a wave, above which is a wave, above which are clouds layer upon layer of darkness. When they hold out their hands, they almost cannot see them (Koran 24:39-40)

Similar to the initial conditions studied by physicists, which led to the evolution of a particular type of universe and the eventual emergence of life, without which the universe would not have resembled what we see today and we wouldn't have been here to see it, the initial conditions in society that determine its structure are crucial to understanding the nature of interaction. This is in the tradition of Auguste Comte, the person who coined the term sociology and sought to model the discipline after the physical sciences, particularly physics (social physics).

The initial conditions in the physical sciences are mysterious and cannot be explained without reference to a designer, the odds of them occurring by chance equal zero, by all real measures. Contrary to this, the intelligently set initial conditions that determines the economy and the relationships of production have human social origins and can be studied by historical and comparative analysis. Functionalists ignore these "initial conditions" and take them as given. Thus attributing the most important determining factors to chance encourages a status quo. The state has a critical role in the reproduction of such relationships of production.

The scientific system demands replication, verification and falsification, hence empirical analysis should become an important part of any theoretical system. It is through empirical verification that workable theories can be extracted from ones that have at best metaphysical and rhetorical value.

In the last 20 to 30 years, as progress has been made in the physical sciences, a hidden order has been revealed in nature. Physicists call this the Cosmic Code . It is an intelligently designed, normative order (the values of which can be derived by analogy through indicators just like the Koran suggests in 30:50) written in a language that humanity can understand, the language of mathematics. In attempting to understand this message, of which only a small part has been decoded yet, scientists aim to uncover a grand unifying theory of everything. Newtonian positive physics is just a small part of this normative (value) order called the Theory of Everything. Once this Cosmic Code is decoded, scientists envision linking all human knowledge together based on it. We will then be able to deduce from it the natural social order and understand the values based upon which ideal human societies can be envisioned in reality, rather than the subjective abstractions that embody Max Weber's (1864-1920) "ideal types".

Contrary to the "natural order" conjectublue by Herbert Spencer in his Social Darwinism- which was natural only to the extent of a reproduction of the "social construction" of a particular type of status quo, the Theory of Everything

will present objective reality of a normative and positive nature based on a larger scale governance of the universe. It will transcend all societies.

Once this theory is understood, it can be speculated that all other systems of social organization based on inadequate and incomplete knowledge like Capitalism, Socialism, Communism, Anarchism and the other "isms" will become obsolete and outdated.

"Therefore, set your face to the system of Islam. The nature of God, based upon which he has natublue humankind. There is no altering what God creates. That is the established standard order. However most among humankind understand not (Koran 30:30).

The Koran is not about self-righteousness, as writings, on what is popularly termed as a religious source are often accused of being. Theory and action need to be separated for the purpose of pure research. Therefore, we need to test the Koran by its claims and not by the actions of those who claim to believe in it or follow it.

Throughout history myths and superstition have so crept under the banner of religion that to believe in God came to be consideblue childish stupidity by modern literary giants. In the face of such opposition we come across a unique book, the Koran. Not only is the Koran written in the most mathematical/logical of all human languages- Arabic, it (the Koran) is unique in history in that it led to the development of the rules of that language itself.

While Bertrand Russell envisioned creating a logical/mathematical language, the Koran did that factually fourteen centuries back. No other book in the history of the world has invented the rules of a language, so to speak, as the Koran did when it gave birth to the rules governing written Arabic. Thus Arabic is the ideal human language that comes closest to emulating the mathematical language of the universe, in an objective fashion based on its logical foundations, which even the lay person can understand. We need to ask here, could a man who had no formal schooling, Muhmmed ibn Abdullah, and lived fourteen centuries back have done this?

Arabic most precise and primitive of the Semitic languages, shows signs of being originally a constructed language. It is built up upon mathematical principles- phenomena not paralleled by any other language (Cleary 1998).

The description of the natural world in the Koran pre-empts much of todays hard-earned scientific findings. Consistent with Karl Poppers Critical Rationalism, the Koran offers falsification . As such, it challenges people of learning to find fault with it and to falsify it. By discovering the Koran, I had unlocked the key to the reality of my 'life-world' within the context of a natural social order, natublue in humankind. Sociobiology and neurology are coming close to confirming the "God part" of the brain (Koran 7:172). We live in exciting times. In the intellectual world, the light of Islam based upon its source, the Koran, shines brighter than it has ever before.

Muhammed Asadi
Copyright(C) 2001


"And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and the wayfarer, and do not squander wastefully."
(Koran 17:26)

Up to one-fifth of America's food goes to waste each year, with an estimated 130 pounds of food per person ending up in landfills. The annual value of this lost food is estimated at around $31billion. But the real story is that roughly those lost resources could have fed 49 million people. Over 12% of the US population, according to the USDA, goes hungry everyday and many millions starve to death around the world.



Asadi, Muhammed. Rational Reality (

Asadi, Muhammed. The Justice Paradigm (

Koran: Translated from the Arabic

Babbie, Earl. The Practice of Social Research. 6th ed. 1992. Wadsworth Publishing Co. California.

Chinyelu, Mamadou. Harlem Ain't Nothin' But a Third World Country. 1999. Mustard Seed Press. New York

Cleary, Thomas. Koran: The Heart of Islam. 1998.

Ed. Shafritz & Ott. Editors. The Classics of Organization Theory. 2000.

Mills. C Wright. The Power Elite. 1956.

Schaefer, Robert T & Lamm Robert P. Sociology. 6th ed. New York. McGraw Hill Companies.

References to the Koran in this paper, eg, Koran 13:33 represent, Chapter (Sura) 13, verse (aya) 33.


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